Food represents not only the source of nutrients for our body, but interacts with the gastrointestinal epithelium, gut microbiome and gut immune system. The diet-immune systems interactions are complex and reciprocal. Various recent studies attempted to explore this complexity in health and in different disease settings in order to untangle the mechanisms and their effects.
This short review briefly discusses different aspects of this relationship, focusing on major players. If we consider that diet and microbiome may be modified by healthcare professional intervention, the implication for disease prevention and therapeutics are intriguing.